راهنمای گزارش نویسی فنی به زبان انگلیسی :

راهنمای گزارش نویسی فنی به زبان انگلیسی :

 

Guide to technical report writing

 

مقدمه :

متن زیر برگرفته از دانشگاه سوسکس است که شرح کامل و مختصر و مفیدی را در مورد گزارش نویسی فنی ارائه داده است :

 

 

Table of contents

1 Introduction
2 Structure
3 Presentation
4 Planning the report
5 Writing the first draft
6 Revising the first draft
7 Diagrams, graphs, tables and mathematics
8 The report layout
9 Headings
10 References to diagrams, graphs, tables and equations
11 Originality and plagiarism
12 Finalising the report and proofreading
13 The Summary
14 Proofreading
15 Word processing / desktop publishing
16 Recommended reading


1 Introduction

A technical report is a formal report designed to convey technical information in a clear and easily accessible format. It is divided into sections which allow different readers to access different levels of information. This guide explains the commonly accepted format for a technical report; explains the purposes of the individual sections; and gives hints on how to go about drafting and refining a report in order to produce an accurate, professional document.



2 Structure

A technical report should contain the following sections;

Section

Details

Title page

Must include the title of the report. Reports for assessment, where the word length has been specified, will often also require the summary word count and the main text word count

Summary

A summary of the whole report including important features, results and conclusions

Contents

Numbers and lists all section and subsection headings with page numbers

Introduction

States the objectives of the report and comments on the way the topic of the report is to be treated. Leads straight into the report itself. Must not be a copy of the introduction in a lab handout.

The sections which make up the body of the report

Divided into numbered and headed sections. These sections separate the different main ideas in a logical order

Conclusions

A short, logical summing up of the theme(s) developed in the main text

References

Details of published sources of material referred to or quoted in the text (including any lecture notes and URL addresses of any websites used.

Bibliography

Other published sources of material, including websites, not referred to in the text but useful for background or further reading.

Acknowledgements

List of people who helped you research or prepare the report, including your proofreaders

Appendices (if appropriate)

Any further material which is essential for full understanding of your report (e.g. large scale diagrams, computer code, raw data, specifications) but not required by a casual reader



3 Presentation

For technical reports required as part of an assessment, the following presentation guidelines are recommended;

Script

The report must be printed single sided on white A4 paper. Hand written or dot-matrix printed reports are not acceptable.

Margins

All four margins must be at least 2.54 cm

Page numbers

Do not number the title, summary or contents pages. Number all other pages consecutively starting at 1

Binding

A single staple in the top left corner or 3 staples spaced down the left hand margin. For longer reports (e.g. year 3 project report) binders may be used.



4 Planning the report

There are some excellent textbooks contain advice about the writing process and how to begin (see Section 16). Here is a checklist of the main stages;

  • Collect your information. Sources include laboratory handouts and lecture notes, the University Library, the reference books and journals in the Department office. Keep an accurate record of all the published references which you intend to use in your report, by noting down the following information;

    Journal article:
    author(s)
    title of article
    name of journal (italic or underlined)
    year of publication
    volume number (bold)
    issue number, if provided (in brackets)
    page numbers

    Book:
    author(s)
    title of book (italic or underlined)
    edition, if appropriate
    publisher
    year of publication

    N.B. the listing of recommended textbooks in section 2 contains all this information in the correct format.
  •  
  • Creative phase of planning. Write down topics and ideas from your researched material in random order. Next arrange them into logical groups. Keep note of topics that do not fit into groups in case they come in useful later. Put the groups into a logical sequence which covers the topic of your report.
  •  
  • Structuring the report. Using your logical sequence of grouped ideas, write out a rough outline of the report with headings and subheadings.

N.B. the listing of recommended textbooks in Section 16 contains all this information in the correct format.



5 Writing the first draft

Who is going to read the report? For coursework assignments, the readers might be fellow students and/or faculty markers. In professional contexts, the readers might be managers, clients, project team members. The answer will affect the content and technical level, and is a major consideration in the level of detail required in the introduction.

Begin writing with the main text, not the introduction. Follow your outline in terms of headings and subheadings. Let the ideas flow; do not worry at this stage about style, spelling or word processing. If you get stuck, go back to your outline plan and make more detailed preparatory notes to get the writing flo

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